Maraschino Liqueur: History, Information, Interesting Facts

Maraschino liqueur: history, information, interesting facts


‘Maraschino’, the liqueur loved in the past by kings, artists and intellectuals, is the main ingredient of some of the most famous cocktails. Its captivating flavor comes from a very particular type of cherry, the ‘marasca’. Its charm is the result of a long history: centuries during which the name ‘Maraschino’ has been associated to the Dalmatian city of Zara and several brave and competent entrepreneurial families. Among them, the Luxardos, a dynasty that, over the years and despite many difficulties, has been able to keep up with the times, representing today the tradition of this tasty specialty.

Maraschino liqueur and the Luxardo family (img-01, img-34, img-47)


The origins of Maraschino liqueur.

Maraschino liqueur: Bottle of Luxardo Maraschino (img-01, img-45)

According to legend, the recipe for rosolio Maraschino (*1) was born in a Dalmatian monastery in the 16th Century, thanks to a friar pharmacist. In truth, there is no evidence about this story. Only the place of origin is certain: the town of Zara and its surroundings, ruled in the past by the Republic of Venice and nowadays part of the state of Croatia (*2). About this, it’s important to remember that the plants of ‘marasca’, the type of cherry used for this specialty, once grew mainly in this area.
Some scholars claim that the real inventor of Maraschino was the botanist Bartolomeo Ferrari, when he realized that using the ‘marasca’ cherry (including leaf and the hazelnut), it was possible to make an exquisite alcoholic beverage. His method of production was later perfected by the Venetian Giuseppe Carceniga, who optimized the distillation process.
From that moment on, the preparation of this rosolio became very fashionable in Zara (*3), the ‘city of the Maraschino’ (*4): a thousand variations of it were conceived, ‘secret recipes’, each one characterized by particular aromaticity and gradation.
Many factories were built: among them, the most ancient and important were Drioli (in 1759), Luxardo (in 1821) and Vlahov (in 1861).

*1: ‘Rosolj’ or ‘Rozolj’, from the Latin ‘ros solis’, ‘sun dew’.
*2: Today the city is known as ‘Zadar’.
*3: Many ladies enjoyed making it at home.
*4: As attested by the famous writer Honorè de Balzac in one of his works.


Maraschino liqueur by Luxardo.

The history of the Luxardos is closely associated to the product that makes them famous worldwide: the Maraschino. A history rich in fascinating events, in many ways similar to a romance.

The first generation: Girolamo Luxardo.

Maraschino liqueur: Girolamo Luxardo (crt-01)

It all began in 1817, when Girolamo Luxardo (*1), entrepreneur of noble origins, moved with his family from Liguria (Region of Italy) to Zara, city that at the time, although in great part populated by Italian-speaking people, was under the control of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (*2). Tradition has it that his wife, the Marquise Maria Canevari, enjoyed very much making at home a typical Dalmatian liqueur, the Maraschino rosolio, Maraschino liqueur: Luxardo advertisement (crt-01) using her own ‘secret’ recipe (*3). This liqueur, offered to friends, was so successful as to encourage Girolamo to start up a company in 1821 (*4). For the sake of completeness, it should be said that, most likely, his interest in this rosolio was probably antecedent: his meetings with the famous producer Giacomo Balletti would prove it. During the following years, the recipe of the Marchesa was further improved until, in 1829, the great quality of the Maraschino Luxardo was certified with a ‘privilege’ awarded by the Emperor of Austria (*5). It’s important to remember, in addition to this refined liqueur, other spirits were produced and successfully exported to many countries.

Michelangelo and the new factory.

Luxardo business continued to grow under the guidance of Nicolò (second generation) and his sons Demetrio and Michelangelo (third generation): Maraschino received many awards all over the world, significantly increasing its sales.
This increase in demand led to the construction of a new, modern factory (*6), inaugurated in 1913.

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World Wars, success and decline.

Maraschino liqueur: Luxardo factory, Barcagno, Zara 1913 (crt-01)

The years of the Great War caused a sudden setback in the apparently unstoppable growth of Luxardo: these difficulties were however brilliantly overcome by the fourth generation of family members. Nicolò, Demetrio, Pietro and Giorgio made the company one of the most famous in Italy (*7). Maraschino liqueur: Luxardo factory ruins, Zara (crt-01)The peak of its success was reached in 1939, just before the beginning of the new conflict: at that time Luxardo could count on hundreds of workers, flourishing cherry plantations and exports all over the world. Unfortunately, the Second World War dealt a potentially fatal blow: in addition to the sharp decline in business (however physiological), in 1943 the plant was almost completely destroyed by Allied bombings and many family members were killed in summary executions carried out by the partisans of Tito. Executions intended to eradicate the Italian presence from Dalmatia.

The rebirth.

What happened in Zara seemed to have definitively put an end to the entrepreneurial adventure begun more than a century earlier by Girolamo, but it did not. One of the brothers, Giorgio, luckily escaped the slaughter (*8) and the destruction. With great courage and the help of the young Nicolò (Nicolò the third, fifth-generation) (* 9), he restarted the family business in the village of Torreglia, at the foot of the Euganean Hills, not far from the city of Padua.
Last survivor among all the main competitors, Luxardo nowadays is still entirely controlled by the sixth generation and is without doubts the oldest factory of Maraschino still in business, representing a centuries-old tradition.

*1: Girolamo was born in 1784 in Santa Maria Ligure (Liguria).
*2: It’s important to remember that these territories previously belonged to the Republic of Venice.
*3: It was slightly sweeter than the ‘official’ one.
*4: Girolamo became so important to be appointed vice-consul by the King of Sardinia.
*5: Since then Luxardo Company got the name ‘Privilegiata Fabbrica Maraschino Excelsior’.
*6: The famous ‘Palazzo del Barcagno’, overlooking still today the Zadar promenade, was part of the factory.
*7: After the First World War, Zara was surrendered by the dissolved Austro-Hungarian Empire to the Kingdom of Italy.
*8: He was in Bologna (Italy).
*9: Michele and Franco Luxardo belong to the same generation.


Maraschino: a liqueur much loved by monarchs.

Many European Kings and Queens (*1) of the past have much appreciated the taste of Maraschino. Here follow some illustrious examples:

Maraschino liqueur: Louis XVIII (img-02)

Louis XVIII (1755-1824)

Louis XVIII of France was the younger brother of the famous Louis XVI, the king guillotined during the French Revolution. He ascended the throne after the definitive defeat of Napoleon. The transition from absolute to constitutional monarchy meant that, compared to the past, he could exercise limited power. (more info)

Maraschino liqueur: George IV (img-03)

George IV (1762-1830)

George IV of Hannover is often remembered as an unusual monarch, considered by many even extravagant. He was a great lover of arts and mundane life. What most characterized the years in which he was entrusted with the regency (in place of his father, George III), was the definitive defeat of Napoleon. (more info)

Maraschino liqueur: Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans (img-04)

Louis Philippe I (1773-1850)

Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, became King of the French in 1830 as Louis Philippe I. He was the last sovereign of France from the Bourbon family. It’s important to remember that he was also the last king: the monarch who succeeded him, Napoleon III, assumed in fact the title of emperor. (more info)

Maraschino liqueur: Nicholas I Romanov (img-05)

Nicholas I (1796-1855)

Nicholas I Romanov became emperor (Tsar) of Russia in 1825. During his reign, the empire reached its maximum territorial extent. His leadership was extremely authoritarian. He was also considered by many the ‘policeman’ of Europe, ready to suffocate any liberal revolution. (more info)

Maraschino liqueur: Queen Victoria (img-06)

Queen Victoria (1819-1901)

Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1837: her reign characterized a period that is still today known as the ‘Victorian era’. Although she had limited power (she was a parliamentary monarch), her influence on the fate of the country was extremely important. (more info)

Maraschino liqueur: George V (img-07)

George V (1865-1936)

George Frederick Ernest Albert, nephew of Queen Victoria, ascended the throne of Great Britain in 1910. He was the king who led the country during the First World War: he found himself in a difficult position since Kaiser Wilhelm II, commander of the enemy forces, was his first cousin. (more info)

It is said that a lot of famous people loved Maraschino: people like Giacomo Casanova, the great Venetian seducer, the poet Charles Baudelaire and the director Alfred Hitchcock.

*1: A purchase note, signed by Auguste de Marmont, Marshal of France and Napoleon’s aide-de-camp, could prove that also the French Emperor enjoyed Maraschino.

Maraschino liqueur: Maraschino Luxardo, advertising banner (crt-01)


Drioli, the first Maraschino liqueur.

Maraschino liqueur: Maraschino Drioli (img-08)

It’s not possible to describe properly Maraschino leaving out an important figure such as Francesco Drioli. Venetian diplomat (*1) and merchant (*2), he was the first to believe in the great commercial potential of this liqueur, starting its production on an industrial scale in 1759. Thanks to his business experience, he promoted his product, exporting it all across Europe through a dense network of skilled representatives. Soon he became the official supplier of many royal families, including those of Austria, England and Italy. He was also the first to use bottles with straw wrapping (initially made by the master glassmakers of Murano), the distinctive mark of Maraschino still today.
When he died, having no children, his company was entrusted to the Salghettis, the family of his wife. At the end of the Nineteenth Century, Simeone Salghetti-Drioli patented a pitting machine.
Read more

Everything continued normally until the end of the Second World War, when the factory was destroyed by Allied bombings. A new plant was built in 1947 in the village of Mira, just outside the city of Venice. Under the expert guidance of Vittorio Salghetti-Drioli, the company returned to its former glory. When Vittorio died in 1974, economic difficulties, exacerbated by the lack of a worthy successor, led to the closure of the factory (1979) and the loss of the mark (1981), putting an end to a centennial business history.

*1: He was vice-consul, representing Spain, the Papal States and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
* 2: At the time Zara and the Dalmatian region, were under the rule of the Republic of Venice.

WebFoodCulture: the most typical specialties, the most traditional restaurants and producers.

The most typical specialties, the most traditional restaurants and producers.


The Maraschino cherries.

Maraschino liqueur: Prunus cerasus (img-09)

‘Maraschino’ is a sweet and transparent liqueur, produced using a particular type of cherry, the ‘marasca’, fruit of the ‘prunus cerasus’ (*1): this differs from the ‘sweet’ cherry, fruit of the ‘prunus avium’, for a slightly smaller size, a lighter color and a more acid and bitter taste. Its content of vitamin A, C and flavonoids is quite high. Until the middle part of the Twentieth Century, the best marasks were gathered in the Dalmatian territories surrounding the city of Zara (today’s ‘Zadar’): it was the Luxardo family who understood first that the Euganean Hills (located in Italy, not far from Padua ), could represent a more than valid alternative (*2), starting what would become one of the main maraschets in Europe.

*1: Many scholars suggest that this plant could be from Asia Minor. Black cherries and sour cherries are gathered from other varieties of the ‘cerasus’.
*2: Choice facilitated by the precious help of the famous agronomist Alessandro Morettini of the University of Florence.
(More info).


How Maraschino is made.

Maraschino is prepared in ways that may slightly differ according to the producer. The main phases of the industrial process are listed below:

Maraschino liqueur: Luxardo factory, Zara, distilling machine (crt-01)

1) Fermentation: the pulp of maraschino cherries (resulting from their soft pressing), is fermented. Some companies use the whole fruit, since stones imparts almond flavor and leaves release precious herbaceous scents.
2) Pressing: the fermented fruit is pressed to extract its liquid part.
3) Infusion: the liquid part of the fermented fruit is infused with alcohol (*1) inside vats made with porous wood (often larch). An aging stage may follow.
Maraschino liqueur: Discontinuous infusion process. 4) Distillation: this phase is carried out by discontinuous copper alembics using steam heating (*2). With this method it’s possible to discard the ‘head’ and the ‘tail’ of the infusion, its ‘unpeasant’ parts, keeping just the best, the ‘heart’ (*3).
5) Refining: a syrup made with water and sugar is added to the distillate. This sweetens its taste and lowers its alcohol content (the desired result is 30% / 32%). The liqueur then ages for two years in Finnish ash barrels: during this period of time its taste becomes more ’round’ and pleasant.

*1: The liqueur (or, better, ‘rosolio’) made by the Marquise Canevari ( ‘forefather’ of Luxardo Maraschino), was the result of infusion, without distillation.
*2: In the discontinuous distillation, the liquid mixture that is being distilled, once exhausted, is completely replaced, restarting the process. This method is generally used for valuable distillates.
*3: The separation of these parts from each other is a physical process, depending on their different boiling points.

Maraschino liqueur: Luxardo factory, Torreglia, distilling machine (crt-01)


Drinks with Maraschino liqueur.

The taste of Maraschino, perfectly enjoyable ‘straight’, gives its best in cocktails. Some are very famous, among them it’s important to remember:

The ‘Martinez’ (1860)

Maraschino liqueur: Cocktail 'Martinez' (cc-02)

The cocktail that many consider the ‘father’ of the ‘Martini’, started to be served at the Occidental Hotel in San Francisco during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. It’s accurately described in the ‘Bar-Tender’s Guide’ by Jerry Thomas. In addition to maraschino, its main ingredients are: Boker’s (Angostura) Bitters, Old Tom Gin and Italian sweet Vermouth. It’s usually garnished with lemon or orange peel.

The ‘Aviation’ (1916)

Maraschino liqueur: Cocktail 'Aviation' (img-10)

Invented in the early years of the 20th century by the bartender Hugo Ensslin at the Hotel Wallick in New York, it’s described in his guide ‘Recipes for Mixed Drinks’ (1916).
In addition to maraschino, its main ingredients are: gin, ‘Crème de violette’ (liqueur giving the cocktail its typical purple color) and lemon juice.

‘The Last Word’ (early 20s)

Maraschino liqueur: Cocktail 'The Last Word' (cc-01)

Cocktail invented at the Detroit Athletic Club, private club in Detroit (USA), during the years of alcohol Prohibition. In addition to the maraschino, its main ingredients are: gin, ‘Chartreuse’ and lemon juice.

The ‘Hemingway Special’ (40s)

Maraschino liqueur: Cocktail 'Hemingway Special' (cc-03)

The ‘Hemingway Special’ is the evolution of one of the favorite drinks of the famous writer Hernest Hemingway: the ‘Floridita Daiquiri’ (tipical specialty of the celebrated bar / restaurant ‘Floridita’ located in Havana, Cuba). In addition to maraschino, its main ingredients are: rum, grapefruit juice and lime juice.


Luxardo and advertisements.

The Luxardos, since the birth of their company, have paid great attention to the promotion of their products. Above all, obviously, their top specialties: the ‘Maraschino’ and the ‘Sangue Morlacco’. Some posters and flyers, commissioned by the family, are counted among the earliest examples of advertising dedicated to liqueurs. Real works of art, testifying the spirit and the style of their own periods. Here follow some examples:


Zara: the city of Maraschino.

The city of Zara was for hundreds of years, together with Dalmatia, under the rule of the Republic of Venice. In 1797 the Austro-Hungarian Empire replaced the Serenissima: a dominion that lasted until the end of the First World War, when the entire region became Italian. The World War II caused its annexation to Yugoslavia. Nowadays it’s part of the Republic of Croatia. Despite all these changes, often quite traumatic, Zara has remained the ‘city of Maraschino’: an important distinguishing mark, achieved thanks to the commitment of great entrepreneur families, above all the Driolis, the Vlahovs and the Luxardos. Today only the latter remains to represent the tradition of a liquor famous worldwide.


Barcagno: the Luxardo’s Palace.

Maraschino liqueur: Palazzo del Barcagno, Zara (crt-01)

‘Palazzo del Barcagno’ was the true symbol of the entrepreneurial success of the Luxardos and of their flagship product, the ‘Maraschino’. It was built in 1913 by Michelangelo Luxardo on an area adjacent to the port, the ‘Barcagno’. A famous Austrian architect was chosen to design it: he gave the building a very ‘Viennese’ appearance. The structure housed the family apartments, the administrative offices and, on the ground floor, a large bottling area. It was part of a larger industrial complex, including a distillery and many warehouses: at the time the plant was considered one of the largest and most modern in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Allied bombings that devastated Zara between 1941 and 1944, ended up destroying the factory, causing serious damage to the ‘palazzo’ (*1). The final step was its confiscation by the Yugoslav government.

*1: the structure was repaired by its new owners and can be admired still today on the Zara promenade.


Torreglia, the new home of Maraschino.

Located on the slopes of the Euganean Hills, the Municipality of Torreglia is the new home of the Girolamo Luxardo S.p.a. The origins of this town are very old: archaeological discoveries have proved that there are settlements in the area since the Neolithic. The Romans were the first to appreciate the fertility of this territory, a characteristic mainly due to its volcanic origins. During the Middle Ages, the ecclesiastical authorities carried out, among other things, reclamation works, thus contributing to the development of agriculture.

In the Fifteenth Century this zone was annexed to the Republic of Venice: an influence witnessed by the presence of sumptuous villas that still today embellish the landscape. Among these, it’s important to mention the magnificent Villa dei Vescovi, in the district of Luvignano.
Starting from the Nineteenth Century, Torreglia began to depend on tourism, driven by the beauty of its places and the proximity to renowned spas. A dense entrepreneurial fabric started to develop after the second post-war period.

Maraschino liqueur: Torreglia, panorama.



Maraschino liqueur: Luxardo, logo (crt-01)

This article is the fruit of the collaboration between WebFoodCulture and Luxardo S.p.a., the most traditional producer of Maraschino liqueur. The information provided illustrate the actual characteristics of the specialty.


Luxardo’s factory in Torreglia.

Luxardo’s factory is in Torreglia, a small town located on the slopes of the Euganean Hills, not far from the city of Padua, in the Italian region of Veneto.

WebFoodCulture: only the most typical and traditional food & wine.



De Balzac, Zara and Maraschino.

Honorè De Balzac, the great French writer and playwright, mentioned Maraschino in one of his novels, ‘Un debut dans la vie’ (1842): “… it was in the city where Maraschino is produced. Zara. I was there. It’s on the coast … “.


The typical bottle of Luxardo Maraschino liqueur.

One of the elements that most characterize Maraschino is undoubtedly its packaging: a bottle with a square base and short neck.
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When looking at it, what immediately catches the eye is its straw wrapping, an expedient adopted in the past by the traders of the Republic of Venice to avoid accidental damages: in time this became a distinguishing mark. Another interesting feature of the bottle is its greenish glass: it was originally produced in the Venetian island of Murano by the renowned local artisans, until it started to be made in factories built just for this purpose in the city of Zara. Finally, Maraschino by Luxardo can be also recognized for the white label showing, side by side, many of the awards acquired by the company over decades of success.

Maraschino liqueur: Gabriele D'Annunzio (img-14)

(G. D’Annunzio)

Maraschino liqueur: Il nome del Maraschino.


The origin of the name ‘Maraschino’.

The name ‘Maraschino’ derives from that of the particular type of cherry used to make this liqueur, the ‘marasca’ (or ‘amarasca’): its name, in turn, derives from the Latin word ‘amarus’, whose meaning is ‘bitter’.


Cherries for the Roman general.

Some scholars hypothesize that the cherry tree was first introduced in Italy by the Roman general and aristocrat Lucius Licinius Lucullus, returning from a military campaign in Pontus (a region in the north-eastern part of today’s Turkey). A credible thesis, especially considering the great love of this personality for delicious food: in fact, it’s no coincidence that even today the most refined and abundant meals are defined ‘lucullan’.


Baroque music for the Luxardo Maraschino liqueur.

A short selection of songs composed by Vivaldi, the greatest Venetian musician, is probably the best choice to accompany the reading of this article:

Note: join Spotify and listen to the full song.


‘Excelsior’ wood for the Maraschino liqueur by Luxardo.

Maraschino is often linked to the word ‘excelsior’: this word derives from ‘fraxinus excelsior’, the type of wood used to make the barrels in which the liquor ages (*1).
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Ash, having very few tannins, does not give the liqueur color and aromas, thus keeping it transparent and preserving its original flavor. At the same time, being porous, this particular wood lets the Maraschino to ‘breathe’ during its stay in the cellar.

*1: Finnish ash trees are often used: this is because their trunks, being generally longer than average, let the construction of larger capacity vats.


Maraschino in the world.

Maraschino, since the beginning of its industrial-scale production (in the Mid-Eighteenth Century), was exported to most European countries. There is evidence that it started to be commercialized in the United States as early as the second half of the 19th Century. Initially this specialty, due to its high price, could be afforded only by aristocrats and wealthy people.


Maraschino on the Titanic.

Such was the fame of the Maraschino in the early 1900s to be served in the luxurious halls of the famous RMS Titanic, during his first (and last) voyage. It’s fascinating to think that a bottle of this liqueur could still be found in the wreck of the ship, lying on the seabed, thousands of meters underwater.


The flag in the bottle.

Over the years the Luxardo family has repeatedly shown a profound attachment to Italy. It’s therefore not surprising that the bottle of Maraschino, the flagship product of their company, bears the colors of the flag of this country: white (on the label), red (on the capsule) and green (of glass).


‘Sangue Morlacco’ for D’Annunzio.

‘Sangue Morlacco’, the flagship product of Luxardo Company together with Maraschino, owes its name to a personality of the past, very famous especially in Italy: Gabriele D’Annunzio.
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Writer, poet, playwright, journalist, politician … but also soldier and patriot: in September 1919 he led an armed expedition to occupy the city of Fiume, establishing a provisional government (Regenza del Carnaro). This blatant, almost fictional gesture, was part of a plan to build his own myth. It is said that one evening, during a meeting with his comrades (the so-called ‘Legionaries’), D’Annunzio nicknamed the cherry brandy they were drinking ‘Sangue Morlacco’, because its ‘dark’ color reminded him of the blood shed by the ‘Morlacchi’ (*2) in defending Europe from the attacks of the Turks.

*1: Pietro Luxardo was one of them.
*2: Ancient population that once lived in the Balkans. Some scholars suppose they could have been the descendants of Roman settlers and Illyrian peoples.


Luxardo: contacts.

The ideal starting point to reach the Luxardo Factory is Padua (not far from Venice). From this city, head towards the Municipality of Torreglia, at the feet of the Euganean Hills.

Girolamo Luxardo S.p.A.

Address:Via Romana 42
35038 Torreglia (PD)



Tel.: +39 049 9934811

fax: +39 049 9933070

Maraschino liqueur: Morlaccan fighter (crt-01)


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The following images are public domain:

img-01 (**) – Bing Cherries, Peggy Greb, Agricultural Research Service (Wikipedia Link) {PD-US}
img-02 (*) – Louis XVIII of France, François Gérard XIX Sec., Hôtel Beauharnais (Wikipedia Link) {PD-Art} {PD-US}
img-03 (*) – George IV, Thomas Lawrence, 1821, Royal Collection (Wikipedia Link) {PD-Art} {PD-US}
img-04 (*) – Louis-Philippe, King of the French, F.X. Winterhalter 1845, Royal Coll. (Wikipedia Link) {PD-Art} {PD-US}
img-05 (*) – Nicholas I, F. Krüger 1852, Hermitage Museum (Wikipedia Link) {PD-Art} {PD-US}
img-06 (*) – Queen Victoria, A.Bassano 1887 (Wikipedia Link) {PD-Art} {PD-US}
img-07 (*) – King George V, Bain News 1923, Lib. of Congress (Wikipedia Link) {PD-US}
img-08 (**) – Maraschino Drioli, 2008, image owner: Creek (released into the public domain by its owner).
img-09 (*) – Prunus cerasus, Franz Eugen Köhler 1897, Lib. of Congress (Wikipedia Link)
img-10 (**) – Aviation Cocktail, 2009, photo by Bskinner112, released into the public domain by its author.
img-11 (*) – Zara, manuscript, 1487, Konrad Grünenberg (Wikipedia Lnk) {PD-Art} {PD-US}
img-12 (*) – Zara, postcard, 1909 (Wikipedia Link) {PD-US}
img-13 (*) – Zara, panorama (Wikipedia Link) {PD-US}
img-14 (*) – Picture of Gabriele D’Annunzio, 1904, author unknown (Wikipedia Link) {PD-US}
img-15 (*) – Caricature of Honorè De Balzac, 1850, image owner Nadar (Wikipedia Link) {PD-US}
img-16 (*) – Picture of Jerry Thomas, 1862, author unknown (Wikipedia Link) {PD-US}
img-17 (*) – Canaletto, 1726, Uffizi Gallery (Wikipedia Link) {PD-Art} {PD-US}
img-18 (*) – Planisphere, year 1689, Gerard van Schagen (Wikipedia Link) {PD-Art} {PD-US}
img-19 (*) – RMS Titanic, 1912, F.G.O. Stuart (Wikipedia Link) {PD-Art} {PD-US}
img-20 (*) – Postcard showing Gabriele D’Annunzio, 1921 (Wikipedia Link) {PD-US}

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cc-01 – Cocktail ‘The Last Word’, image owner Don LaVange (Wikipedia Link)

These images are made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0):

cc-02 – Martinez Cocktail, image owner Will Shenton (Wikipedia Link)
cc-03 – Hemingway Special, image owner Achim Schleuning (Wikipedia Link)
cc-04 – Lucullus, image owner Janmad (Wikipedia Link)

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crt-01 – Images published courtesy of Girolamo Luxardo S.p.A.

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Image 01 – Luxardo Maraschino, advertising poster (image published courtesy of the owner: Girolamo Luxardo S.p.A.)
Image 02 – Bing Cherries, image owner Peggy Greb, Agricultural Research Service (Wikipedia Link) {PD-US}
Image 03 – Martinez Cocktail, image owner Will Shenton (Wikipedia Link) Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0)

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